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An increasing cost of capital and limited access to public markets restrict the prospect for efficient sovereign debt issuance in less developed countries - with debt levels close 100% of GDP globally.


More than half of the world’s population now live in urban areas and cities account for -around two-thirds of the planet’s energy consumption (75% of energy produced), generating 80% of greenhouse gas emissions.

Retrofit and Built Environment

Globally, buildings are a major source of energy consumption and related pollutant emissions. Decarbonising the built environment is a multi-stakeholder issue which is consistently at the centre of our work with cities and local authorities.


Energy is the driving force of modern societies and, with the sector contributing to nearly two-thirds of all greenhouse gas emissions, the energy transition is a fundamental response to the climate crisis.


One-third of total urban greenhouse gas emissions in major cities is generated by transport. Reducing urban mobility emissions therefore provides a significant opportunity to decarbonise our cities.

Food & Agriculture

Our current food system and methods of agriculture cannot continue without significant socio-environmental consequences and deepened inequities.

Circular Economy & Bio-based Construction

It is expected that new construction will cause embodied emissions of over 100 gigatons of carbon by 2060 - total emissions from transport in 2020, were 8 gigatons of carbon.

Nature-based Solutions

Utilising nature effectively to combat the extensive social and environmental challenges faced by society provides elegant solutions to complex issues, while also generating co-benefits.


There was a 68% decline in species populations among mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fish from 1970 to 2016.


Overfishing, plastic pollution and other forms of marine degradation are threatening marine ecosystems and essential food systems.

Technical Assistance

To respond effectively to the climate crisis. As a not-for-profit, BwB has always emphasized the importance of knowledge sharing, open source dissemination and education.

Carbon & Forestry

Forests regulate the climate through CO2 absorption, provide us with the air we breathe, and protect the Earth’s rich biodiversity. Despite being central to our existence, global forest cover has dramatically decreased over the last century.

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