An increasing cost of capital and limited access to public markets restrict the prospect for efficient sovereign debt issuance in less developed countries - with debt levels close 100% of GDP globally.
More than half of the world’s population now live in urban areas and cities account for -around two-thirds of the planet’s energy consumption (75% of energy produced), generating 80% of greenhouse gas emissions.
Globally, buildings are a major source of energy consumption and related pollutant emissions. Decarbonising the built environment is a multi-stakeholder issue which is consistently at the centre of our work with cities and local authorities.
Energy is the driving force of modern societies and, with the sector contributing to nearly two-thirds of all greenhouse gas emissions, the energy transition is a fundamental response to the climate crisis.
Forests regulate the climate through CO2 absorption, provide us with the air we breathe, and protect the Earth’s rich biodiversity. Despite being central to our existence, global forest cover has dramatically decreased over the last century.